By Maxi Lengkey.
The earliest organization that we would recognize today as tourism started in the middle of nineteenth century. Thomas Cook is historically credited with organizing the first tourist excursion in 1841 when he sold ticket for a train ride from Leicester to Loughborough as a mean of promoting The Temperance cause, then The Methodist Missionary Henry Lunn pioneered the skiing holiday just a few years later.
In 1963 IUTO ( now World Tourism Organization) has been agreed term “visitor” to describe any person visiting a country other than that in which he has his usual place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited”.
The definition was to cover two classes of visitors:
a.Tourist, who were classed as temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours,whose purpose could be classified as leisure( whether for recreation, health, sport,holiday,study or religion), or business, family, mission or meeting.
b.Excursionist, who were classed as temporary visitors staying less than 24 hours, including cruise travelers but excluding travelers in transit.
A working party for the proposed Institute of Tourism in Britain (now The Tourism Society) attempted to clarify the concept : tourism is the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the place where they normally live, work and do their activities during their stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes as well a day visits or excursions.
II. Classification Of Tourim.
Oka (1995), clasifies tourism as follows :
1. According to its Geography where tourism is developed.
1.1 Local Tourism. The operation of local tourism involves local places and relatively narrow because it is limited to a certain places.
1.2 Regional Tourism. The activities take place in a certain place in a certain region which has wider territory than a local tourism.
1.3 National Tourism. It includes domestic tourism deals with local people who lives in the country. Second, foreign tourism, deals with foreigners who travel to foreign countries.
1.4 International Tourism
This term is the same as world tourism which means all the tourism activities over the world include the National Tourism and The International Tourism.
2. According to its impact on the sale of payment.
Based on the impact on sale of payment Oka classifies into:
2.1 Active Tourism
The activity of active tourism is marked by tourists that come to certain countries. It is called active tourism because they are provided with revenue by the destination country that strengthen in selling .
2.2 Passive or Out-Going Tourism
It is marked by domestic tourists go abroad as tourists.
3. According to its place of destination.
3.1 Business Tourism. The tourism centralize its activity on business . It applies, for example the visitor are on duty doing trade business, attending congress or meetings.
3.2 Vocational Tourism.
This activity relates to a certain occasion or event.
4. According to the purpose of trvelling.
4.1 Cultural Tourism.
The motivations of people do traveling cultural tourism are enjoying interesting culture of the destination country and seeing the ancient cultural places.
4.2 Recuperation Tourism
The ultimate goal of doing recuperation tourism is getting medial treatment or something to cure ilnes.
IV. Tourism Spot or Tourism Objects.
Tourism object is the phenomenon of human recreation, life order, art of culture , national history, place or natural condition that has power of attraction to be visited by tourists ( Logoh : 1994).
Suwono (2000) classified the tourism objects into :
a. NaturalTourism Object, it is focused on the nature such as : Sea Garden, Water Fall, Mountains, Beaches, Natural Reserve. etc
b. Non-Natural Object, such as : Culture, Society, Rituals, Sports and Events.
Bagus Oka, 1995. Pengantar Ilmu Pariwisata. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.
Logoh, N.K, 1994. Kamus Istilah Pariwisata. Jakarta : Gunung Agung.
Suwantoro. G, 1996. Dasar-Dasar Pariwisata. Yogyakarata: Andi Offset.
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